While humanity continues to battle against Covid, the ski season approached and the valley dwellers speculated wildly on what it would look like. Surely the economy needed to keep moving and generate some taxable income for the state that was haemorrhaging cash keeping the people off the bread line? The Swiss certainly thought so and were quick to announce their ski lifts would be open. France adopted the opposite approach going into lockdown in the autumn as covid cases per day accelerated past the 30k mark. They set a target of 3000 cases a day which gave hope to many that things might be under control by Christmas. Furthermore they actively sought a united European approach to keep the ski resorts closed aligning first with Italy and then a reluctant Austria. The ramifications and negative publicity behind the handling of the Ischgl covid outbreak that resulted in the virus being spread throughout Europe and class act law suits against the Tyrolean town must have weighed heavily on the Health Minister from each of the Alpine nations. In the end the target was not met and despite stricter curfews the numbers stayed near the 20000 / day mark. The ski lifts remained closed for Christmas and January and now the whole of February.
Drought in the northern Alps meant biking was the order of the day but like the pervious years, a massive storm on the Mediterranean brought huge snowfalls to the Dolomites and Piedmont. The rules and covid level classification for each Italian region made travel a dubious proposition and I had to wait patiently for things to change at home. And then it dumped for ten days providing one of the best periods for skiing the lowers in living memory. After ten days of averaging 2k/day ascent, it was a luxury to get a couple of days rest before the next cycle!
A short film from last years La Sentinelle in Arolla Switzerland. I didn’t guide on that meet but I did on the previous 3 editions and plan to be at the Dolomites meet in 2021. Hope to see you there and enjoy the film.
Ski touring in a Christmas card landscape. The winter season is underway and despite the government keeping the ski lifts closed for the next few weeks, clients can go ski touring with qualified mountain guides.
This week we have had the first winter snowfalls here in the Alps and I got the chance to meet up with Alain Duclos once again to discuss his favourite topics of snow mechanics and in particular crack initiation, weak layer collapse and crack propagation. It’s kinda comparable to my work as an engineer and fracture mechanics in weld and acceptable flaw size that wouldn’t result in weld failure for the design load.
Alain is an avalanche expert, responsible for road safety in the Haute Maurienne which is home to the Frejus Tunnel – a major freight and transportation link between France and Italy that is over looked by some impressive alpine terrain. Sadly, Alain is often called as an expert witness for avalanche accidents in the Alps.
survivors are generally surprised that the slope avalanched and often underestimate the slope angle.
This highlights 2 things. The ability to accurately gauge a slope angle, remembering anything above 30 degrees puts you in avalanche terrain while also considering overhead terrain & the fact that they were surprised means they were operating in a relaxed mode, perhaps due to failing to recognise they were in avalanche terrain or failure to assess the risk. Alain’s website data-avalanche is a ‘go to’ teaching, training, and reference resource for everyone to use.
There are 6 main criteria to review and assess for avalanche danger; the avalanche bulletin, slope angles >30º, recent avalanche observations, rising temperature & thawing, overloading due to wind accumulation / new snow / rain, and the possibility of a buried weak layer which a bulletin should highlight for well frequented areas.
There are 4 vigilance modes, relaxed, suspicious/cautious, alert & risk or gambling mode. It is clear that if you are relaxed and get caught in an avalanche, then there has been a failure in the observations made.
Play long enough in gambling mode and the statistics will catch up with you. However to complicate the matter further, Humans fall into 4 different categories for decision making traits, and at best only 2 of these types of people are likely to make conservative stand alone decisions (ref Powder magazine’s – The Human Factor 2.0).
To set the scene we were on the mountain after the first 30 cm snowfall of winter. The Alps has another hot summer and then a cold snap at the end of September brought around 1.5 m of snow and was followed by nearly 2 months of Indian Summer. Meteo France had not started avalanche forecasting and so digging a number of snow pits would provide valuable current information on snowpack stability.
Usually I would have been skiing since September but with the new norms this was my first day on snow. We did a number of investigative snow tests between 2750 m and 2350 m on northerly aspects on 30-35 degree slopes. At each site 2 Compression Tests (CT) and a Propagation Saw Test (PST) were performed. For the first time all the tests yielded similar results – a weak layer lying just below the crust of the old snow surface yielding crack initiation, propagation and failure. Skinning around on the flat yielded a number of whoomps indicating collapse/failure of the weak layer. Its early days yet and no avalanche control has been done yet but it was definitely interesting to see whats going on right now.
I run 1 day avalanche awareness courses throughout the winter so don’t hesitate to contact me at email@example.com or phone/WhatsApp +33781287608 If you want to expand your knowledge and safety margins this winter.
The best ski runs from 2020. We started the season down under. New Zealand must be one of my alternative spiritual homes, a place I’ve visited several times and feel completely at home. For skiing it’s like my Super Bowl. You may make all the moves and just be out of luck with high winds making you question the sanity of opening the outside door. But make the finals and on ‘The Day’ NZ will show you her magic and allow you play your A game. With @davejsearle we added a 700 m line to the Caroline Face, skied the 2nd known descent of Bowie Couloir and did another lap on the East Face of Cook. Back in Chamonix just as the season got good lockdown came and we had a wait of 2 months confined to our homes before restarting the season with a run on the Midi North Face to start the high mountain season. Dreaming of skiing during lockdown 2, hopefully it will be over soon.